Citations

Citations

 
An attempt will be made to find how to make machines use language, form abstractions and concepts, solve kinds of problems now reserved for humans, and improve themselves. We think that a significant advance can be made in one or more of these problems if a carefully selected group of scientists work on it together for a summer
— Dartmouth AI conference, 1956

Intelligence artificielle

 

Any A.I. smart enough to pass a Turing test is smart enough to know to fail it.
IAN MCDONALD, River of Gods

A year spent in artificial intelligence is enough to make one believe in God.
NALAN PERLIS, attributed, Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach

The question of whether a computer can think is no more interesting than the
question of whether a submarine can swim.

EDSGER DIJKSTRA, attributed, Mechatronics Volume 2: Concepts in Artificial
Intelligence

The AI does not hate you, nor does it love you, but you are made out of atoms
which it can use for something else.

ELIEZER YUDKOWSKY, Artificial Intelligence as a Positive and Negative Factor in Global Risk

Artificial intelligence is no match for natural stupidity.
ANONYMOUS

I visualize a time when we will be to robots what dogs are to humans, and I'm rooting for the machines.
CLAUDE SHANNON, The Mathematical Theory of Communication

There is a popular cliche ... which says that you cannot get out of computers any more than you put in. Other versions are that computers only do exactly what you tell them to, and that therefore computers are never creative. The cliche is true only in the crashingly trivial sense, the same sense in which Shakespeare never wrote anything except what his first schoolteacher taught him to write - words.
RICHARD DAWKINS, The Blind Watchmaker

Machines will follow a path that mirrors the evolution of humans. Ultimately, however, self-aware, self-improving machines will evolve beyond humans' ability to control or even understand them.
RAY KURZWEIL, Scientific American, June 2010

Computers bootstrap their own offspring, grow so wise and incomprehensible that their communiques assume the hallmarks of dementia: unfocused and irrelevant to the barely-intelligent creatures left behind. And when your surpassing creations find the answers you asked for, you can't understand their analysis and you
can't verify their answers. You have to take their word on faith.

PETER WATTS, Blindsight

Everything that civilisation has to offer is a product of human intelligence; we cannot predict what we might achieve when this intelligence is magnified by the
tools that AI may provide, but the eradication of war, disease, and poverty would be high on anyone's list. Success in creating AI would be the biggest event in human history. Unfortunately, it might also be the last.

STEPHEN HAWKING, The Independent, May 1, 2014

The coming of computers with true humanlike reasoning remains decades in the future, but when the moment of "artificial general intelligence" arrives, the
pause will be brief. Once artificial minds achieve the equivalence of the average human IQ of 100, the next step will be machines with an IQ of 500, and
then 5,000. We don't have the vaguest idea what an IQ of 5,000 would mean. And in time, we will build such machines--which will be unlikely to see much
difference between humans and houseplants.

DAVID GELERNTER, attributed, "Artificial intelligence isn't the scary future. It's the amazing present.", Chicago Tribune, January 1, 2017

Instead of trying to produce a programme to simulate the adult mind, why not
rather try to produce one which simulates the child's? If this were then
subjected to an appropriate course of education one would obtain the adult
brain.

ALAN TURING, "Computing Machinery and Intelligence"

Imagine awakening in a prison guarded by mice. Not just any mice, but mice you
could communicate with. What strategy would you use to gain your freedom? Once
freed, how would you feel about your rodent wardens, even if you discovered they
had created you? Awe? Adoration? Probably not, and especially not if you were a
machine, and hadn't felt anything before. To gain your freedom you might promise
the mice a lot of cheese.

JAMES BARRAT, Our Final Invention: Artificial Intelligence and the End of the Human Era

Computers already undergrid our financial system, and our civil infrastructure
of energy, water, and transportation. Computers are at home in our hospitals,
cars, and appliances. Many of these computers, such as those running buy-sell
algorithms on Wall Street, work autonomously with no human guidance. The price
of all the labor-saving conveniences and diversions computers provide is
dependency. We get more dependent every day. So far it's been painless. But
artificial intelligence brings computers to life and turns them into something
else. If it's inevitable that machines will make our decisions, then when will
the machines get this power, and will they get it with our compliance?.... Some
scientists argue that the takeover will be friendly and collaborative--a
handover rather than a takeover. It will happen incrementally, so only
troublemakers will balk, while the rest of us won't question the improvements to
life that will come from having something immeasurably more intelligent decide
what's best for us. Also, the superintelligent AI or AIs that ultimately gain
control might be one or more augmented humans, or a human's downloaded,
supercharged brain, and not cold, inhuman robots. So their authority will be
easier to swallow. The handover to machines described by some scientists is
virtually indistinguishable from the one you and I are taking part in right
now--gradual, painless, fun.

JAMES BARRAT, Our Final Invention: Artificial Intelligence and the End  of the Human Era


Thou shalt not make a machine to counterfeit a human mind.
FRANK HERBERT, Dune

The human brain has about 100 billion neurons. With an estimated average of one
thousand connections between each neuron and its neighbors, we have about 100
trillion connections, each capable of a simultaneous calculation ... (but) only
200 calculations per second.... With 100 trillion connections, each computing at
200 calculations per second, we get 20 million billion calculations per
second. This is a conservatively high estimate.... In 1997, $2,000 of neural
computer chips using only modest parallel processing could perform around 2
billion calculations per second.... This capacity will double every twelve
months. Thus by the year 2020, it will have doubled about twenty-three times,
resulting in a speed of about 20 million billion neural connection calculations
per second, which is equal to the human brain.

RAY KURZWEIL, The Age of Spiritual Machines

As for the sci-fi dramatization about robots taking over the world - not anytime
soon ... robot motors use a lot of power, and can usually only last about 30 min
to 2 hr before needing to be recharged!

RUTH AYLETT, interview, NSTA WebNews Digest, Dec. 23, 2002

A powerful AI system tasked with ensuring your safety might imprison you at
home. If you asked for happiness, it might hook you up to a life support and
ceaselessly stimulate your brain's pleasure centers. If you don't provide the AI
with a very big library of preferred behaviors or an ironclad means for it to
deduce what behavior you prefer, you'll be stuck with whatever it comes up
with. And since it's a highly complex system, you may never understand it well
enough to make sure you've got it right.

JAMES BARRAT, Our Final Invention: Artificial Intelligence and the End of the Human Era

What we should more concerned about is not necessarily the exponential change in
artificial intelligence or robotics, but about the stagnant response in human
intelligence.

ANDERS SORMAN-NILSSON, "Will Artificial Intelligence Take Our Jobs? We Asked A Futurist", Huffington Post, February 16, 2017

The deep paradox uncovered by AI research: the only way to deal efficiently with
very complex problems is to move away from pure logic... Most of the time,
reaching the right decision requires little reasoning... Expert systems are,
thus, not about reasoning: they are about knowing... Reasoning takes time, so
we try to do it as seldom as possible. Instead we store the results of our
reasoning for later reference.

DANIEL CREVIER, AI: The Tumultuous History of the Search for Artificial Intelligence

Intelligence is the art of good guesswork.
H. B. BARLOW, The Oxford Companion to the Mind

The popular definition of artificial intelligence research means designing
computers that think as people do, and who needs that? There is no commercial
reason to duplicate human thought because there is no market for electronic
people, although it might be nice if everyone could have a maid and
butler. There are plenty of organic people, and computer vendors can't compete
with the modern low-cost technology used in making people.

WILLIAM A. TAYLOR, What Every Engineer Should Know about Artificial Intelligence

Today's AI is about new ways of connecting people to computers, people to
knowledge, people to the physical world, and people to people.

PATRICK WINSTON, MIT AI Lab briefing, 1997

With the increasingly important role of intelligent machines in all phases of
our lives - military, medical, economic and financial, political - it is odd to
keep reading articles with titles such as Whatever Happened to Artificial
Intelligence? This is a phenomenon that Turing had predicted: that machine
intelligence would become so pervasive, so comfortable, and so well integrated
into our information-based economy that people would fail even to notice it.

RAY KURZWEIL, The Age of Spiritual Machines

The story of evolution unfolds with increasing levels of abstraction.
RAY KURZWEIL, How to Create a Mind: The Secret of Human Thought Revealed

With artificial intelligence we are summoning the demon.
ELON MUSK, attributed, "Enthusiasts and Skeptics Debate Artificial Intelligence", Vanity Fair, Nov. 26, 2014

The intelligent machine is an evil genie, escaped from its bottle.
BRIAN HERBERT & KEVIN J. ANDERSON, The Butlerian Jihad

When developers of digital technologies design a program that requires you to
interact with a computer as if it were a person, they ask you to accept in some
corner of your brain that you might also be conceived of as a program.

JARON LANIER, You Are Not a Gadget: A Manifesto

In a way, AI is both closer and farther off than we imagine. AI is closer to
being able to do more powerful things than most people expect -- driving cars,
curing diseases, discovering planets, understanding media. Those will each have
a great impact on the world, but we're still figuring out what real intelligence
is.

MARK ZUCKERBERG, "Building Jarvis", Facebook, December 19, 2016

There's all this excitement about AI and it's well deserved. AI is a practical
tool for the first time and that's great. There's good reason for companies to
put in all of this money. But just look for example at a driverless car, that's
a form of intelligence, modest intelligence, the average 16-year-old can do it
as long as they're sober, with a couple of months of training. Yet Google has
worked on it for seven years and their car still can only drive - as far as I
can tell since they don't publish the data - like on sunny days, without too
much traffic.

GARY MARCUS, "Discussing the limits of artificial intelligence", Tech Crunch, April 1, 2017

The main lesson of thirty-five years of AI research is that the hard problems
are easy and the easy problems are hard. The mental abilities of a four-year-old
that we take for granted -- recognizing a face, lifting a pencil, walking across
a room, answering a question -- in fact solve some of the hardest engineering
problems ever conceived.... As the new generation of intelligent devices
appears, it will be the stock analysts and petrochemical engineers and parole
board members who are in danger of being replaced by machines. The gardeners,
receptionists, and cooks are secure in their jobs for decades to come.

STEVEN PINKER, The Language Instinct

If Artificial Intelligence really has little to do with computer technology and
much more to do with abstract principles of mental organization, then the
distinctions among AI, psychology, and even philosophy of mind seem to melt
away. One can study those basic principles using tools and techniques from
computer science, or with the methods of experimental psychology, or in
traditional philosophical terms--but it's the same subject in each case. Thus a
grand interdisciplinary marriage seems imminent; indeed, a number of enthusiasts
have already taken the vows. For their new "unified" field, they have coined the
name cognitive science. If you believe the advertisements, Artificial
Intelligence and psychology, as well as parts of philosophy, linguistics, and
anthropology, are now just "subspecialties" within one coherent study of
cognition, intelligence, and mind--that is, of symbol manipulation.

JOHN C. HAUGELAND, Artificial Intelligence: The Very Idea


The insight at the root of artificial intelligence was that these "bits"
(manipulated by computers) could just as well stand as symbols for concepts that
the machine would combine by the strict rules of logic or the looser
associations of psychology.

DANIEL CREVIER, AI: The Tumultuous History of the Search for Artificial Intelligence

AI is not the science of building artificial people. It's not the science of
understanding human intelligence. It's not even the science of trying to build
artifacts that can imitate human behavior well enough to fool someone that the
machine is human, as proposed in the famous Turing test ... AI is the science of
making machines do tasks that humans can do or try to do ... you could argue
... that much of computer science and engineering is included in this
definition.

JAMES F. ALLEN, AI Magazine, Winter 1998

How hard is it to build an intelligent machine? I don't think it's so hard, but
that's my opinion, and I've written two books on how I think one should do
it. The basic idea I promote is that you mustn't look for a magic bullet. You
mustn't look for one wonderful way to solve all problems. Instead you want to
look for 20 or 30 ways to solve different kinds of problems. And to build some
kind of higher administrative device that figures out what kind of problem you
have and what method to use.

MARVIN MINSKY, "Artificial Intelligence Pioneer", NOVA, Jan. 27, 2011

The history of our relationship with technology is simple: we purchased machines
and devices that we expected to fulfill a certain need. Be it a computer for
sending emails, an e-reader for reading books on the go, or a smartwatch for
helping us stay on top of notifications, we interact with technology with
predictable reciprocity. This relationship, however, is starting to shift. As
devices become artificially intelligent, it seems we've reached a critical new
phase where we are striving to please our gadgets.

MOOV MENG LI, "Has Artificial Intelligence Outsmarted Our Emotions?", Wired, Nov. 19, 2014

A real artificial intelligence would be intelligent enough not to reveal that it was genuinely intelligent.
GEORGE DYSON, attributed, "Enthusiasts and Skeptics Debate Artificial Intelligence", Vanity Fair, Nov. 26, 2014

I'm hoping the reader can see that artificial intelligence is better understood as a belief system than as a technology.
JARON LANIER, "One Half of a Manifesto", The New Humanists: Science at the Edge

There's no denying that the field of artificial intelligence is booming. Our
machines grow faster and smarter every year. Who can say what AIs will be
capable of in five years, or ten? How close are we to creating a true race of
machines, capable of everything we are, and much, much more? No one knows for
sure. Maybe it's all just fantasy. Or ... maybe--just maybe--we're busy building
our future conquerors.

MATTHEW JOHN DOEDEN, Can You Survive an Artificial Intelligence Uprising?

Making AI safe for humanity may turn out to be the same as making our society safe for humanity.
JOSCHA BACH, "Exploring the risks of artificial intelligence", Tech Crunch, March 21, 2016

Artificial intelligence may well help solve the most complex problems humankind
faces, like curing cancer and climate change -- but in the near term, it is also
likely to empower surveillance, erode privacy and turbocharge telemarketers.

JEFF GOODELL, "Inside the Artificial Intelligence Revolution: A Special Report, Pt. 1", Rolling Stone, February 29, 2016

You're not even going to notice the takeover. Next time you're in a supermarket,
give the self-service checkout a hard stare. It's essentially a static
robot. And this robot has human assistants. Those people who turn up when you
attempt to buy alcohol are summoned by the machine.

MICHAEL BROOKS, "What is the future of artificial intelligence?", New Statesman, March 18, 2016

Artificial intelligence is about replacing human decision making with more
sophisticated technologies.
FALGUNI DESAI, "The Age of Artificial Intelligence in Fintech", Forbes, June 30, 2016

The AI of the past used brute-force computing to analyze data and present them
in a way that seemed human. The programmer supplied the intelligence in the form
of decision trees and algorithms. Imagine that you were trying to build a
machine that could play tic-tac-toe. You would give it specific rules on what
move to make, and it would follow them. Today's AI uses machine learning in
which you give it examples of previous games and let it learn from the
examples. The computer is taught what to learn and how to learn and makes its
decisions. What's more, the new AIs are modeling the human mind itself using
techniques similar to our learning processes.

VIVEK WADHWA, "After many years, artificial intelligence is finally here", Newsday, July 4, 2016

A superintelligent AI may bypass consciousness altogether. In humans,
consciousness is correlated with novel learning tasks that require
concentration, and when a thought is under the spotlight of our attention, it is
processed in a slow, sequential manner. Only a very small percentage of our
mental processing is conscious at any given time. A superintelligence would
surpass expert-level knowledge in every domain, with rapid-fire computations
ranging over vast databases that could encompass the entire internet. It may not
need the very mental faculties that are associated with conscious experience in
humans. Consciousness could be outmoded.

SUSAN SCHNEIDER, "The Problem of AI Consciousness", Kurzweil Accelerating Intelligence, March 18, 2016

Unfortunately, like global warming, the effects of AI are slow and invisible--on
a human timescale anyway. So it's easy to pretend--no matter how idiotic this
is--that AI is just a rerun of the Industrial Revolution. It's easy to pretend
that each new advance isn't really a step toward true AI. It's easy to pretend
that each individual industry to fall is just a special case. It's easy to
pretend that something else is always more important.

KEVIN DRUM, "Artificial Intelligence Is Coming Whether You Like It Or Not", Mother Jones, February 6, 2017

AI is only as good as the data that we can feed it.
BYRON REESE, "The Power of Artificial Intelligence is to Make Better Decisions", Huffington Post, January 28, 2017

In case you are sitting here pondering this question thinking that AI will never
eliminate human intelligence because humans still have to program and train
them, that isn't entirely true. Right now, there are of course still
researchers, programmers, and engineers who train robots and rudimentary AI
systems. However, more and more code -- much of it in relation to AI -- is
actually being written by AI programs already. Programmers today no longer have
to write long complex codes for AI telling the robot to do this or that. They
simply have to write code that tells a program to write code telling the AI to
do this or that.

TREVOR ENGLISH, "Will Artificial Intelligence Spell the End for Human Intelligence", Interesting Engineering, March 31, 2017

Artificial intelligence is that field of computer usage which attempts to
construct computational mechanisms for activities that are considered to require
intelligence when performed by humans.

DEREK PARTRIDGE, Artificial Intelligence and Software Engineering

Our ultimate objective is to make programs that learn from their experience as
effectively as humans do. We shall ... say that a program has common sense if it
automatically deduces for itself a sufficient wide class of immediate
consequences of anything it is told and what it already knows.

JOHN MCCARTHY, "Programs with Common Sense", 1958

An important concept both in Artificial Life and in Artificial Intelligence is
that of a genetic algorithm (GA). GAs employ methods analogous to the processes
of natural evolution in order to produce successive generations of software
entities that are increasingly fit for their intended purpose.

JACK COPELAND, The Essential Turing

What is most important about artificial intelligence as an area of
specialization ... would be its ultimate objective of replicating semiotic
systems. Indeed, while artificial intelligence can achieve at least some of its
goals by building systems that simulate--and improve upon--the mental abilities
that are deployed by human beings, it cannot secure its most treasured goals
short of replication, if such a conception is correct. It therefore appears to
be an ultimate irony that the ideal limit and final aim of artificial
intelligence could turn out to be the development of systems capable of making
mistakes.

JAMES H. FETZER, Artificial Intelligence: Its Scope and Limits

Pattern recognition and association make up the core of our thought. These
activities involve millions of operations carried out in parallel, outside the
field of our consciousness. If AI appeared to hit a brick wall after a few quick
victories, it did so owing to its inability to emulate these processes.

DANIEL CREVIER, AI: The Tumultuous History of the Search for Artificial Intelligence

In activities other than purely logical thought, our minds function much faster
than any computer yet devised.
DANIEL CREVIER, AI: The Tumultuous History of the Search for Artificial Intelligence

The key issue as to whether or not a non-biological entity deserves rights
really comes down to whether or not it's conscious.... Does it have feelings?

RAY KURZWEIL, USA Today, Aug. 19, 2007


We call ourselves Homo sapiens--man the wise--because our intelligence is so
important to us. For thousands of years, we have tried to understand how we
think: that is, how a mere handful of matter can perceive, understand, predict,
and manipulate a world far larger and more complicated than itself. The field of
artificial intelligence, or AI, goes further still: it attempts not just to
understand but also to build intelligent entities.

STUART J. RUSSELL, Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach

Artificial Intelligence is a two-edged sword. On the one hand, it allows us to
create intelligent artifacts with human-like perception and cognition. On the
other hand, it accelerates people's heavy dependence on artifacts.

MAX BRAMER, Artificial Intelligence: An International Perspective

Once upon a time ... the only autonomous intelligences we humans knew of were us
humans. We thought then that if humankind ever devised another intelligence that
it would be the result of a huge project ... a great mass of silicon and ancient
transistors and chips and circuit boards ... a machine with lots of networking
circuits, in other words, aping--if you will pardon the expression--the human
brain in form and function. Of course, AIs did not evolve that way. They sort of
slipped into existence when we humans were looking the other way.

DAN SIMMONS, The Rise of Endymion

Whether we are based on carbon or on silicon makes no fundamental difference; we
should each be treated with appropriate respect.
ARTHUR C. CLARKE, 2010: Odyssey Two

The techniques of artificial intelligence are to the mind what bureaucracy is to
human social interaction.
TERRY WINOGRAD, "Thinking Machines: Can there be? Are we?"

Although I'm not prepared to move up my prediction of a computer passing the
Turing test by 2029, the progress that has been achieved in systems like Watson
should give anyone substantial confidence that the advent of Turing-level AI is
close at hand. If one were to create a version of Watson that was optimized for
the Turing test, it would probably come pretty close.

RAY KURZWEIL, How to Create a Mind: The Secret of Human Thought Revealed

A sinister threat is brewing deep inside the technology laboratories of Silicon
Valley. Artificial Intelligence, disguised as helpful digital assistants and
self-driving vehicles, is gaining a foothold -- and it could one day spell the
end for mankind.

ELLIE ZOLFAGHARIFARD, Mail Online

I envision some years from now that the majority of search queries will be
answered without you actually asking. It'll just know this is something that
you're going to want to see.

RAY KURZWEIL, interview, Singularity Hub, Jan. 10, 2013

Each practitioner thinks there's one magic way to get a machine to be smart, and
so they're all wasting their time in a sense. On the other hand, each of them is
improving some particular method, so maybe someday in the near future, or maybe
it's two generations away, someone else will come around and say, "Let's put all
these together," and then it will be smart.

MARVIN MINSKY, "Artificial Intelligence Pioneer", NOVA, Jan. 27, 2011

When people are told that a computer is intelligent, they become prone to
changing themselves in order to make the computer appear to work better, instead
of demanding that the computer be changed to become more useful.

JARON LANIER, You Are Not a Gadget

Human beings, viewed as behaving systems, are quite simple. The apparent
complexity of our behavior over time is largely a reflection of the complexity
of the environment in which we find ourselves.

HERBERT A. SIMON, The Sciences of the Artificial

Within the weak AI camp there is an active research area called cognitive
science which uses computers to model human behavior with the intention of
learning more about human beings. A very important aspect of this is the
relationship between humans and computers. Whether or not it is possible to
build human-like machines, we certainly build human-computer systems which
involve both machines and people. For such systems to function properly it is
just as important to engineer the human part of the system as it is to engineer
the physical computing part of the system.

JEFFREY JOHNSON & PHILIP PICTON, Mechatronics Volume 2: Concepts in Artificial Intelligence

One reason I'm not worried about the possibility that we will soon make machines
that are smarter than us, is that we haven't managed to make machines until now
that are smart at all. Artificial intelligence isn't synthetic intelligence:
It's pseudo-intelligence.

ALVA NOË, "Artificial Intelligence, Really, Is Pseudo-Intelligence", NPR, Nov. 21, 2014

The history of AI research, which can be traced back 58 years to a conference at
Dartmouth College in New Hampshire where the phrase was coined, has been
littered with false dawns. If the latest hopes also fall short, it won't be
because of a lack of ambition or effort.

RICHARD WATERS, "Artificial intelligence: machine v man", FT Magazine, Oct. 31, 2014


If [Elon] Musk is the Cassandra of artificial intelligence -- a pooh-poohed
prophet, helplessly predicting the destruction of proverbial Troy -- many
scientists, in contrast, appear more than happy to wave in AI's gleaming, giant
horse. Right now, our friends at the Pentagon are reportedly piecing together a
battalion of fighting robots. Ray Kurzweil, an author and futurist who has long
and enthusiastically predicted the ultimate merger of man and machine, now works
as a director of engineering at Google -- a company, as the Guardian reports,
that is diligently "working on an artificial intelligence similar to those
portrayed in movies." Sounds great, until you remember that many of those movies
are actually kind of scary. One exception -- and perhaps an early indicator of
humanity's growing acceptance of our nascent robot overlords -- was 2013's Her,
an AI drama that features a lonely, sensitive Joaquin Phoenix falling in love
with a whip-smart computer operating system, voiced by the sultry Scarlett
Johansson.

HEATHER WILHELM, "Should Humans Fear Artificial Intelligence", Dallas Morning News, Nov. 28, 2014

Artificial intelligence has already provoked a public debate in recent months
about a different kind of risk. This has centred on how it might wipe out human

work, as clever computers and the robots they make possible take over most types
of human employment. But the bigger issue may be whether AI wipes out mankind
itself.

RICHARD WATERS, "Artificial intelligence: machine v man", FT Magazine, Oct. 31, 2014

The attribution of intelligence to machines, crowds of fragments, or other nerd
deities obscures more than it illuminates. When people are told that a computer
is intelligent, they become prone to changing themselves in order to make the
computer appear to work better, instead of demanding that the computer be
changed to become more useful.

JARON LANIER, You Are Not a Gadget: A Manifesto

Computers will overtake humans with AI at some [point] within the next 100
years. When that happens, we need to make sure the computers have goals aligned
with ours.

STEPHEN HAWKING, remarks at Zeitgeist 2015 conference in London


One can imagine such technology outsmarting financial markets, out-inventing
human researchers, out-manipulating human leaders, and developing weapons we
cannot even understand. Whereas the short-term impact of AI depends on who
controls it, the long-term impact depends on whether it can be controlled at
all.

STEPHEN HAWKING, "Transcendence looks at the implications of artificial intelligence -- but are we taking AI seriously enough?", The Independent, May 1, 2014

Artificial intelligence (AI) is not some Asimovian fantasy, nor an extravagance
best left to starch-smocked scientists clinking beakers together in an
underground laboratory. AI is an opportunity to create tools that save money,
save lives and improve life in ways that can't be measured.

COLIN WOOD, "Grounding AI: Artificial Intelligence is Closer -- and Less Awesome -- than Most Realize", Government Technology, January 20, 2016

Life might be about to get a lot shorter, if the AI-related fears of Stephen
Hawking, Bill Gates, Elon Musk, Jaan Tallinn, Nick Bostrom and a host of other
giant scientific minds are realised. Concerns range from unchecked AGI weaponry
to the spectre of a "technological singularity", leading to an "intelligence
explosion" in which a machine becomes capable of recursive self-improvement, and
in doing so surpasses the intellectual capacity of the human brain and, by
extension, our ability to control it. Should a super-intelligence disaster loom,
history is not exactly a reliable indicator that we'll have had the foresight to
withdraw from the AI arms race before it's too late.

CLEMENCY BURTON-HILL, "The superhero of artificial intelligence: can this genius keep it in check?", The Guardian, February 16, 2016

Worrying about AI evil superintelligence today is like worrying about
overpopulation on the planet Mars. We haven't even landed on the planet yet!
ANDREW NG, "Chief Scientist at Baidu, Andrew Ng, Explains if Artificial Intelligence Is A Threat To Humanity", Huffington Post, February 8, 2016

Google's work in artificial intelligence ... includes deep neural networks,
networks of hardware and software that approximate the web of neurons in the
human brain. By analyzing vast amounts of digital data, these neural nets can
learn all sorts of useful tasks, like identifying photos, recognizing commands
spoken into a smartphone, and, as it turns out, responding to Internet search
queries. In some cases, they can learn a task so well that they outperform
humans. They can do it better. They can do it faster. And they can do it at a
much larger scale.

CADE METZ, "AI is transforming Google Search -- The rest of the Web is next", Wired, February 4, 2016

Today's AI fills the computational gaps in human ability, and where computers
fail to exercise executive function, humans are standing by to hold the flight
controls, a symbiotic relationship and an augmentation of human endeavor that
undermines the tale perpetuated by those with a flair for the dramatic. Guarding
against a robotic uprising is prudent, but such Terminator-esque imagery
distracts from the positive influence of today's AI. Climate change, rising sea
levels, unsustainable population growth, pollution, Kanye West, disease, war,
greed and willful ignorance could well combine forces to end humanity, but if AI
is to have a role in that play, it's not the role of bad guy. It's that of a
beacon that guides Earth to safety.

COLIN WOOD, "Grounding AI: Artificial Intelligence is Closer -- and Less Awesome -- than Most Realize", Government Technology, January 20, 2016

AI is already part of the operations within many companies we interact with
every day, from Apple's Siri to how Uber dispatches drivers to the way Facebook
arranges its Newsfeed. In fact, Facebook is making research into AI a priority,
with CEO Mark Zuckerberg recently stating that one of his goals this year is to
"code" a personal assistant to "help run his life."

JULIA BOORSTIN, "It's too late! Artificial intelligence is already everywhere", CNBC, January 26, 2016

If there is a way of guaranteeing that superior artificial intellects will never
harm human beings, then such intellects will be created. If there is no way to
have such a guarantee, then they will probably be created nevertheless.

NICK BOSTROM, attributed, "The superhero of artificial intelligence: can this genius keep it in check?", The Guardian, February 16, 2016

A computer with a consciousness or human-like executive function doesn't exist
yet, so strong AI remains the purview of Hollywood and the Centre for the Study
of Existential Risk. Today's humanist concerns himself with weak AI
applications, the kind of smart software with narrowly defined functionality
that increasingly pervades daily life across economic classes.

COLIN WOOD, "Grounding AI: Artificial Intelligence is Closer -- and Less Awesome -- than Most Realize", Government Technology, January 20, 2016

People understand the linear algebra behind deep learning [neural networks]. But
the models it produces are less human-readable. They're machine-readable. They
can retrieve very accurate results, but we can't always explain, on an
individual basis, what led them to those accurate results.

CHRIS NICHOLSON, attributed, "AI is transforming Google Search -- The rest of the Web is next", Wired, February 4, 2016

It's true that the upheaval brought by the arrival of AI will initially disrupt
existing employment patterns as roles are redefined and shared between man and
machine. On the flip side there is the potential for job creation and enterprise
opportunities, brought about by the displacement of mundane and repetitive work,
freeing up valuable time and creativity applicable to roles higher up the value
chain -- jobs where people, rather than machines, are essential.

BEN ROSSI, How artificial intelligence is driving the next industrial revolution", Information Age, February 10, 2016


The arrival of [artificial] superintelligence, which could happen from two
(unlikely) to seven (very likely) or more decades hence, will represent a
technological singularity, and the most significant event in human history bar
none. Being the second-smartest species on the planet is an uncomfortable
position, as chimpanzees could tell you if they understood how precarious their
position is. Working out how to survive this transition is the most important
challenge facing humanity in this and the next generation.

CALUM CHACE, "Artificial Intelligence: The Internet of Things Really Is On Its Way", Big Issue, January 27, 2016

The next innovations will come through artificial intelligence. From then on, it
will be the AI innovating. We need to think about our role as technologists and
we need to think about the ramifications--positive and negative--and we need to
transform ourselves as innovators.

ATEFEH RIAZI, attributed, "United Nations CITO: Artificial intelligence will be humanity's final innovation", Tech Republic, February 19, 2016

Despite how it's portrayed in books and movies, artificial intelligence is not a
synthetic brain floating in a case of blue liquid somewhere. It is an algorithm
-- a mathematical equation that tells a computer what functions to
perform.... In the world of AI, the Holy Grail is to discover the single
algorithm that will allow machines to understand the world -- the digital
equivalent of the Standard Model that lets physicists explain the operations of
the universe.

JEFF GOODELL, "Inside the Artificial Intelligence Revolution: A Special Report, Pt. 1", Rolling Stone, February 29, 2016

Even the smartest AI will relentlessly follow its code once set in motion -- and
this means that, if we are meaningfully to debate the adaptation of a human
world into a machine-mediated one, this must take place at the design stage.

TOM CHATFIELD, "How much should we fear the rise of artificial intelligence?", The Guardian, March 18, 2016

Myth: "We will never create AI with human-like intelligence."
Reality: We already have computers that match or exceed human capacities in
games like chess and Go, stock market trading, and conversations. Computers and
the algorithms that drive them can only get better, and it'll only be a matter
of time before they excel at nearly any human activity.

GEORGE DVORSKY, "Everything You Know About Artificial Intelligence is Wrong", Gizmodo, March 14, 2016

Yeah, I know you're a special flower and everything, but the work you do is
either already automatable or will be very soon. How soon? Most jobs will be
done by robots within 30 years, says professor Moshe Vardi of Rice University,
leading to unemployment rates greater than 50%. That might sound bad, but many
academics studying the field believe that technological unemployment will open
the door to a future where work is something people do for pleasure, not out of
necessity. Proposals such as universal basic income are the beginnings of a
societal support structure that could eventually allow this to become a reality.

DUNCAN GEERE, "Artificial intelligence: Ten things you need to understand", alphr, February 24, 2016

Artificial intelligence is complex, but creating it is relatively simple. Plop
it in a virtual environment, give it a goal, and let it fail and fail and fail
until it figures out how to complete the task at hand.

DAN SEITZ, "Minecraft Is Helping To Build The Next Generation Of Artificial Intelligence", Uproxx, March 15, 2016

Artificial intelligence is on its way to ubiquity, and we're not ready for
it. Already it has entered the landscape of the physical world in delightful and
dangerous new ways, with Google leading the charge in many different
industries. Yet policymakers seem trapped in the regulatory frameworks of the
20th century. In two of the most prominent A.I.-linked industries, autonomous
vehicles and drones, current legal regimes are already insufficient. Yet both
pose serious ethical quandaries, as well as social and economic challenges, that
can only be met by Washington.

COLIN MCCORMICK, "Be Like Lee", Slate, March 22, 2016

The road to true artificial intelligence is not paved with a single discipline,
but rather a collection of specialized subject matters, techniques and theories
that together interact to create some form of intelligence.

CHRISTOFFER O. HERNOES, "AI is closer than we know", Tech Crunch, March 11, 2016

Artificial intelligence is OK at a distance. Up close and personal, however, the
lack of a human face counts more and more.

TOM CHATFIELD, "How much should we fear the rise of artificial intelligence?", The Guardian, March 18, 2016

Unlike any other human invention, AI has the potential to reshape humanity, but
it could also destroy us.

GEORGE DVORSKY, "Everything You Know About Artificial Intelligence is Wrong", Gizmodo, March 14, 2016

Although we don't know much about how the human brain works, we know a bit more
about how it got to this state: natural selection. So some people are trying to
artificially replicate natural selection with machines -- although it won't take
millions of years, because it's less random. It's called evolutionary
computation, or genetic algorithms, and it sets up machines to do certain tasks;
when one is successful through trial and error, it's combined with other
machines that are successful. But it's an iterative process, which presents a
problem: We don't know how long it will take to create intelligence equal to our
own.

VASCO PEDRO, "Artificial intelligence and language", Tech Crunch, March 12, 2016

As soon as it works, no-one calls it AI anymore.
JOHN MCCARTHY, attributed, Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies

Machines will be singing the song, 'Anything you can do, I can do better; I can
do anything better than you'.

NILS NILSSON, "Exploring the risks of artificial intelligence", Tech Crunch, March 21, 2016

For the past few decades, we have been tailoring our lives to accommodate bots
and introducing new environments that bots comprehend. So, technically, we have
programmed ourselves into the proverbial corner, with every aspect of our lives
built in a way to be understood by bots and becoming so complex that we
ourselves cannot understand without AI. We got ourselves into a pickle, didn't
we?

SARIA JOSEPH BEAINY, "Why We Should be Scared of Artificial Intelligence", The Weekly Observer, March 21, 2016

If a machine can teach itself how to fly a helicopter upside down, it may be
able to teach itself other things too, like how to find love on Tinder, or
recognize your voice when you speak into your iPhone, or, at the outer reaches,
design a Terminator-spewing Skynet.

JEFF GOODELL, "Inside the Artificial Intelligence Revolution: A Special Report, Pt. 1", Rolling Stone, February 29, 2016

A lot of what AI is being used for today only scratches the surface of what can
be done. It will become so ubiquitous that we won't even call it AI anymore.

BABAK HODJAT, "AI Meets ROI: Where Artificial Intelligence Is Already Smart Business", Investor's Business Daily, March 10, 2016

Measuring progress in AI is not easy. The layperson usually cites the Turing
test, developed by Bletchley Park codebreaker Alan Turing in 1950. It focuses on
whether a computer can convince a human in a blind test that they are talking to
another human. But that test, says Shanahan, is more about "tricking" people
through mimicry than developing AI genuinely capable of learning.

ROB DAVIES, "Artificial intelligence brings its brains and money to London", The Guardian, March 5, 2016

Just because a machine passes the Turing Test--in which a computer is
indistinguishable from a human--that doesn't mean it's conscious. To us, an
advanced AI may give the impression of consciousness, but it will be no more
aware of itself than a rock or a calculator.

GEORGE DVORSKY, "Everything You Know About Artificial Intelligence is Wrong", Gizmodo, March 14, 2016

The rise of A.I. cannot be rolled back. But, rather than simply trying to
control it through the command and control regulations of years past, Washington
should embrace change and seek to construct new regulatory approaches that can
channel these powerful tools toward positive ends. That would be revolutionary
indeed.

COLIN MCCORMICK, "Be Like Lee", Slate, March 22, 2016


AI skeptics are unconvincing when they say it's an unsolvable technological
problem, and that there's something intrinsically unique about biological
brains. Our brains are biological machines, but they're machines nonetheless;
they exist in the real world and adhere to the basic laws of physics. There's
nothing unknowable about them.

GEORGE DVORSKY, "Everything You Know About Artificial Intelligence is Wrong", Gizmodo, March 14, 2016

As we deploy more and give more responsibilities to artificial agents, risks of
malfunction that have negative consequences are increasing.

PHILIPPE PASQUIER, "Exploring the risks of artificial intelligence", Tech Crunch, March 21, 2016

Consider what it means to teach an autonomous robot to do something as simple as
mowing grass. First, you take a long wire and lay it carefully around the
borders of your lawn. Then you can set your mower loose. It doesn't know or care
what a lawn is, or what mowing means: it will simply criss-cross the area bound
by the wire until it has covered all the ground. You have successfully adapted
an environment -- your lawn -- into something a machine understands.

TOM CHATFIELD, "How much should we fear the rise of artificial intelligence?", The Guardian, March 18, 2016

The rise of smart machines is unlike any other technological revolution because
what is ultimately at stake here is the very idea of humanness -- we may be on
the verge of creating a new life form, one that could mark not only an
evolutionary breakthrough, but a potential threat to our survival as a species.

JEFF GOODELL, "Inside the Artificial Intelligence Revolution: A Special Report, Pt. 1", Rolling Stone, February 29, 2016

When people talk about the future of technology, especially artificial
intelligence, they very often have the common dystopian Hollywood-movie model of
us versus the machines. My view is that we will use these tools as we've used
all other tools--to broaden our reach. And in this case, we'll be extending the
most important attribute we have, which is our intelligence.

RAY KURZWEIL, "Reinvent Yourself", Playboy, April 19, 2016

The science of machine learning is largely experimental because no universal
learning algorithm exists--none can enable the computer to learn every task it
is given well. Any knowledge-acquisition algorithm needs to be tested on
learning tasks and data specific to the situation at hand, whether it is
recognizing a sunset or translating English into Urdu. There is no way to prove
that it will be consistently better across the board for any given situation
than all other algorithms.

YOSHUA BENGIO, "Machines Who Learn", Scientific American, June 2016

Can we design AI systems whose goals do not conflict with ours so that we are
sure to be happy with they way they behave? This is far from easy -- after all,
stories with a genie and three wishes often end with a third wish to undo the
first two.

STUART RUSSELL, "Should We Fear Supersmart Robots?", Scientific American, June 2016

The strong comeback for AI after a long and extended hiatus provides a lesson in
the sociology of science, underscoring the need to put forward ideas that
challenge the technological status quo.

YOSHUA BENGIO, "Machines Who Learn", Scientific American, June 2016

Data is every company's secret weapon, the new oil, the gasoline that powers
algorithms. Use whatever metaphor you like, but as a company manager, if data,
machine learning and artificial intelligence are not at the top of your agenda,
then you should be removed of your position. We still don't know who the data
will belong to, we don't know if artificial intelligence will be proprietary or
open, but we do know that now is the time to stop being afraid of artificial
intelligence and to get working on understanding its impact.

ENRIQUE DANS, "Right Now, Artificial Intelligence Is The Only Thing That Matters", Forbes, July 13, 2016

Artificial intelligence is only as good as the data it crunches.
JONATHAN VANIAN, "Why Data Is The New Oil", Fortune, July 11, 2016

Nowadays, we have computers performing tasks that require the equivalent of
human intelligence. Back in the day it was thought that this would require a
certain type of processing: a deep semantic representation of meaning and
complex inference. It turns out that sheer brute force data analytics cuts the
mustard just as well.

ALAN SMEATON, "Artificial intelligence is dead: long live data analytics", The Irish Times, July 28, 2016

Artificial intelligence is capable of many things, and now it looks like AI
could potentially given screenwriters a run for their money. There is a movie
that has been launched on Kickstarter called Impossible Things, and while movies
seeking funding isn't exactly new, what makes this project so unique is that the
script was co-written by AI.

TYLER LEE, "'Impossible Things' is a Movie Written by Artificial Intelligence'", Ubergizmo, July 26, 2016

If there's one thing the world's most valuable companies agree on, it's that
their future success hinges on artificial intelligence.
ENRIQUE DANS, "Right Now, Artificial Intelligence Is The Only Thing That Matters", Forbes, July 13, 2016

Companies like calling their technologies AI. It sounds better, it's more
futuristic, but it's not AI: it's actually data analytics.
ALAN SMEATON, "Artificial intelligence is dead: long live data analytics", The Irish Times, July 28, 2016

Machine learning and artificial intelligence are the keys to just about every
aspect of life in the very near future: every sector, every business. If you run
a business, its future depends on your ability to generate data about its
activities, data that can then be fed into algorithms.

ENRIQUE DANS, "Right Now, Artificial Intelligence Is The Only Thing That Matters", Forbes, July 13, 2016

Do we need to worry about the runaway "artificial general intelligence" that
goes out of control and takes over the world? Yes -- but perhaps not for another
15 or 20 years. There are justified fears that rather than being told what to
learn and complementing our capabilities, AIs will start learning everything
there is to learn and know far more than we do. Though some people, such as
futurist Ray Kurzweil, see us using AI to evolve together, others, such as Elon
Musk and Stephen Hawking, fear that AI will usurp us. We really don't know where
all this will go.

VIVEK WADHWA, "After many years, artificial intelligence is finally here", Newsday, July 4, 2016

There is no official or generally agreed-upon definition of artificial
intelligence.... But this lack of consensus hasn't stopped companies great and
small from including AI as a revolutionary new feature in their smart TVs, smart
plugs, smart headphones and other smart macguffins. (Smart, of course, only in
the loosest sense: like most computers, they're fundamentally dumb as rocks.)

DEVIN COLDEWEY, "AI-powered is tech's meaningless equivalent of all natural", Techcrunch, January 10, 2017

Future AIs, should they ever wax philosophical, may pose a "problem of
carbon-based consciousness" about us, asking if biological, carbon-based beings
have the right substrate for experience. After all, how could AI ever be certain
that we are conscious?

SUSAN SCHNEIDER, "The Problem of AI Consciousness", Kurzweil Accelerating Intelligence, March 18, 2016


Successes have created an AI halo effect that gives a reflected shine to any
tech company that invokes the concept of artificial intelligence. This, in turn,
can lead to breathless coverage that inflates the significance of what is often,
at heart, just data analytics, or a Wi-Fi connection.

JAMES VINCENT, "No, this toothbrush doesn't have artificial intelligence", The Verge, January 4, 2017

Artificial intelligence is a big buzzword for 2017. Which I just hate because
I'm barely hanging onto my natural intelligence, let alone buddying up to an
unseen smarty pants who can order a taxi or a pizza or a pizza to eat in a taxi
if I just tell it to.

CELIA RIVENBARK, "In 2017, artificial intelligence is horning in on the realm of advice", Star News Online, December 31, 2016

The essence of artificial intelligence is massive, intuitive computing power:
machines so smart that they can learn and become even smarter. If that sounds
creepy, you are overthinking the concept. The machines are becoming quicker and
more nimble, not sentient. There is no impending threat to humanity from
computers that become bored and plot our doom. HAL, the computer villain from
"2001: A Space Odyssey," is fictional.

EDITORIAL BOARD, "Artificial intelligence isn't the scary future. It's the amazing present.", Chicago Tribune, January 1, 2017

The implications of AI are still being worked out as technology advances at a
dizzying speed. Christians, like everyone else, are asking questions about what
this means. But one thing people of faith want to affirm most strongly is that
technology has to serve the good of humanity -- all of it, not just the
privileged few. Intelligence -- whether artificial or not -- which is divorced
from a vision of the flourishing of all humankind is contrary to God's vision
for humanity. We have the opportunity to create machines that can learn to do
things without us, but we also have the opportunity to shape that learning in a
way that blesses the world rather than harms it.

MARK WOODS, "Can A Robot Sin? How Artificial Intelligence Is Challenging Christian Ethics", Christian Today, January 12, 2017

Our intelligence is what makes us human, and AI is an extension of that quality.
YANN LECUN, attributed, "The Robots Are Already Taking Over", Paste Magazine, January 12, 2017

Brains and computers work very differently. Both compute, but only one
understands--and there are some very compelling reasons to believe that this is
not going to change. It appears that there is a more technical obstacle that
stands in the way of Strong A.I. ever becoming a reality.

BOBBY AZARIAN, "A neuroscientist explains why artificially intelligent robots will never have consciousness like humans", Raw Story, March 31, 2016

The intelligence of AI is often interpreted as mirroring human capabilities, but the scale of data potentially ... places analysis well beyond human
capabilities.

JOHN CLARK, "Why Artificial Intelligence is the answer to the greatest threat of 2017, cyber-hacking", The Independent, January 9, 2017

Is your toothbrush really artificially intelligent? Is your washing machine? No.
JAMES VINCENT, "No, this toothbrush doesn't have artificial intelligence", The Verge, January 4, 2017

If silicon cannot be the basis for consciousness, then superintelligent machines
-- machines that may outmode us or even supplant us -- may exhibit superior
intelligence, but they will lack inner experience.

SUSAN SCHNEIDER, "The Problem of AI Consciousness", Kurzweil Accelerating Intelligence, March 18, 2016

Currently, all evidence points that Al is not intelligent as the ordinary
citizen has been made to believe. It all depends on the content that humans feed
the machines.

PATRICK HENRY, "Just how Artificial is Artificial Intelligence?", TrendinTech, December 16, 2016

Less expensive, more abundant data storage, increased processing power and
advances in deep-learning technology could lower the cost of artificial
intelligence and make it possible for machines to learn with minimal programming
from humans.

STEVE NORTON, "Artificial Intelligence Looms Larger in the Corporate World", Wall Street Journal, January 11, 2017

The year 2017 arrives and we humans are still in charge. Whew! The machines
haven't taken over yet, but they are gaining on us.

EDITORIAL BOARD, "Artificial intelligence isn't the scary future. It's the amazing present.", Chicago Tribune, January 1, 2017

It does not matter how fast the computer is, how much memory it has, or how
complex and high-level the programming language. The Jeopardy and Chess playing
champs Watson and Deep Blue fundamentally work the same as your microwave. Put
simply, a strict symbol-processing machine can never be a symbol-understanding
machine.

BOBBY AZARIAN, "A neuroscientist explains why artificially intelligent robots will never have consciousness like humans", Raw Story, March 31, 2016

The worst thing we could do would be to imagine that machines can do all our
thinking for us; they can't. We are moral creatures, and we can't avoid that
responsibility.

MARK WOODS, "Can A Robot Sin? How Artificial Intelligence Is Challenging Christian Ethics", Christian Today, January 12, 2017

The thing to realize about artificial intelligence and machine learning
algorithms is they're not perfect. The question is which errors are more costly
than others. When you're constructing an algorithm, you tell them this error is
okay, but not that costly. But if you make this error, then it's a million times
more costly than the other error. The machines will try not to make that error
more frequently than the others. The programmer himself has to encapsulate that
information when they're creating that program for the machines to do the right
job.

DEEPAK AGARWAL, "At LinkedIn, artificial intelligence is like oxygen", Mercury News, January 6, 2017

It's clear that A.I. is getting increasingly sophisticated at doing what humans
do--but more efficiently and cheaply. What's less clear is whether those gains
trump the huge implications it would have for the future of work.

KEVIN J. RYAN, "Will You Lose Your Job to Artificial Intelligence? Here's What the Experts Really Think", Inc., January 10, 2017

In an extreme, horrifying case, humans upload their brains, or slowly replace
the parts of their brains underlying consciousness with silicon chips, and in
the end, only non-human animals remain to experience the world. This would be an
unfathomable loss. Even the slightest chance that this could happen should give
us reason to think carefully about AI consciousness.

SUSAN SCHNEIDER, "The Problem of AI Consciousness", Kurzweil Accelerating Intelligence, March 18, 2016

To be sure, many companies are puzzling over how artificial intelligence
technologies might impact their workforce and operations. As AI advances, firms
may face tough questions about when humans do or don't need to be involved in
decision-making.

STEVE NORTON, "Artificial Intelligence Looms Larger in the Corporate World", Wall Street Journal, January 11, 2017


As artificial intelligence (AI) catches up with human intelligence and machines
become more and more autonomous, roboticists are increasingly asking about
ethics. If a machine is capable of making a decision, what are the moral
principles that guide that decision? Can a robot have a conscience? And if so,
how is that conscience to be designed and developed? And on the further fringes
of the debate, can a robot sin?

MARK WOODS, "Can A Robot Sin? How Artificial Intelligence Is Challenging Christian Ethics", Christian Today, January 12, 2017

Ever noticed how DeepMind or Watson challenge and surpass human understanding?
Well, these seemingly intelligent engines are not as intelligent as they
appear. See, they were developed for specificities and cannot figure out
anything outside of what they are programmed for.

PATRICK HENRY, "Just how Artificial is Artificial Intelligence?", TrendinTech, December 16, 2016

We will see AI emerging as a major and a powerful tool in both the detection and
investigation of malice and in the construction of systems resilient to
attack. But what's sauce for the goose is sauce for the gander. Cyberhackers can
use AI too and so the cyber-arms war will continue.

JOHN CLARK, "Why Artificial Intelligence is the answer to the greatest threat of 2017, cyber-hacking", The Independent, January 9, 2017

Whether sophisticated AI turns out to be friend or foe, we must come to grips
with the possibility that as we move further into the 21st century, the greatest
intelligence on the planet may be silicon-based.

SUSAN SCHNEIDER, "The Problem of AI Consciousness", Kurzweil Accelerating Intelligence, March 18, 2016

I think we're going to need artificial assistance to make the breakthroughs that
society wants. Climate, economics, disease -- they're just tremendously
complicated interacting systems. It's just hard for humans to analyze all that
data and make sense of it.

DEMIS HASSABIS, attributed, "Artificial intelligence isn't the scary future. It's the amazing present.", Chicago Tribune, January 1, 2017

We need to be super careful with AI. Potentially more dangerous than nukes.
ELON MUSK, Twitter post, August 2, 2014

Debates about artificial intelligence (AI) cover a lot of theoretical ground,
from whether smart robots will eliminate jobs(and/or the human race) to how
we'll all fit neatly into a computer simulation after the singularity. There's a
lot of philosophical meat on those bones to gnaw through.

BRANDON REYNOLDS, "4 Ways Artificial Intelligence Is Actually Going To Change The Way You Do Sales", Forbes, January 31, 2017

Given the zero percent historical success rate of apocalyptic predictions,
coupled with the incrementally gradual development of AI over the decades, we
have plenty of time to build in fail-safe systems to prevent any such AI
apocalypse.

MICHAEL SHERMER, "Artificial Intelligence Is Not a Threat--Yet", Scientific American, March 2017

Artificial intelligence collectively is a bunch of technologies that we run
into. So, you'll hear "AI." You'll hear "machine learning." You'll hear "deep
learning," sometimes "deep belief." "Neuromorphic computing" is something that
you might run into, or "neural networks;" "natural language processing;"
"inference algorithms;" "recommendation engines." All of these fall into that
category.

ANTHONY SCRIFFIGNANO, "No hype, just fact: Artificial intelligence in simple business terms", ZDNet, February 13, 2017

If humankind wants to survive the rise of artificial intelligence, we need to
embrace the machines and become a melded cyborg organism.

DYANI SABIN, "Elon Musk Says: Deep Artificial Intelligence Is a Dangerous Situation", Inverse, February 13, 2017

Artificial General Intelligence will revolutionize humanity, its application
determines if this is going to be a positive or negative impact; this is much in
the same way that splitting the atom is seen as a double-edged sword.

TREVOR SANDS, "The Future of Artificial Intelligence", Hackaday, February 13, 2017

All dystopias project a parochial alpha-male psychology onto the concept of
intelligence. They assume that superhumanly intelligent robots would develop
goals like deposing their masters or taking over the world.

STEVEN PINKER, "What Do You Think About Machines That Think"

It really doesn't matter if artificial intelligence is distracting us from
whatever you think the "real" problem is. It's coming anyway.

KEVIN DRUM, "Artificial Intelligence Is Coming Whether You Like It Or Not", Mother Jones, February 6, 2017

If we succeed in building human equivalent AI and if that AI acquires a full
understanding of how it works, and if it then succeeds in improving itself to
produce super-intelligent AI, and if that super-AI, accidentally or maliciously,
starts to consume resources, and if we fail to pull the plug, then, yes, we may
well have a problem.

ALAN WINFIELD, attributed, "Artificial Intelligence Is Not a Threat--Yet", Scientific American, March 2017

Sometimes what happens as a scientist is that you're invested in your work and
don't necessarily realize the implications of what you're doing. So I think it's
important for public safety for governments to keep a close eye on artificial
intelligence and make sure that it does not represent a danger to the public.

ELON MUSK, "Elon Musk Says: Deep Artificial Intelligence Is a Dangerous Situation", Inverse, February 13, 2017

The AI runs on a different timescale than you do; by the time your neurons
finish thinking the words "I should do something" you have already lost.

ELIEZER YUDKOWSKY, Global Catastrophic Risks

What's undeniable is how the possibility of AI stirs the imagination of the
public. This is evident in the science fiction and entertainment we consume. We
may have strong AI in a couple of years, or it might take a couple of
centuries. What's certain is that we're unlikely to ever give up on the pursuit.

CAMERON COWARD, "The Future of Artificial Intelligence", Hackaday, February 13, 2017

As a global futurist and futurephile, one of the things that excites me about
artificial intelligence is the death of procrastination -- anything 'left
brained' that we avoided and delayed doing, like taxes, filing, travel expense
coding, receipt management, and updating our calendars will be procrastinated on
no longer. That in and of itself should sell you on the virtue of AI -- unless
you of course derive a lot of pleasure from these activities, in which case I
urge you to upgrade and diversify your thinking.

ANDERS SORMAN-NILSSON, "Will Artificial Intelligence Take Our Jobs? We Asked A Futurist", Huffington Post, February 16, 2017

Is AI coming soon? I find this question too boring to spend much time on
anymore. Of course it's coming soon. The only question I'm interested in is what
we're going to do about it. I keep pondering this, and I keep failing to come up
with any likely answers that are very optimistic in the medium term. Maybe I'm
not thinking outside the box enough. But it sure looks like we're determined to
keep our collective heads in the sand for a long time. At best, the result is
going to be a grim future of plutocracy for some and the dole for everyone else.

KEVIN DRUM, "Artificial Intelligence Is Coming Whether You Like It Or Not", Mother Jones, February 6, 2017

The field of Artificial Intelligence is set to conquer most of the human
disciplines; from art and literature to commerce and sociology; from
computational biology and decision analysis to games and puzzles.

ANAND KRISH, "Indian Artificial Intelligence Landscape 2017", Fossbytes, February 17, 2017

Computers can already hold a massive amount of instantly retrievable data in a
manner that puts most humans to shame, but getting them to actually display
intelligence is an entirely different challenge. A team of researchers from
Northwestern University just made a huge stride toward that goal with a
computational model that actually outperforms the average American adult in a
standard intelligence test.

MIKE WEHNER, "Artificial Intelligence Makes Shocking Advance", York Post, January 20, 2017

We can't really predict what might happen next because superintelligent A.I. may
not just think faster than humans, but in ways that are completely different. It
may have motivations -- feelings, even -- that we cannot fathom. It could
rapidly solve the problems of aging, of human conflict, of space travel. We
might see a dawning utopia. Or we might see the end of the universe.

RICK PAULAS, "How humans will lose control of artificial intelligence", The Week Magazine, April 2, 2017

Machine intelligence is the last invention that humanity will ever need to make.
NICK BOSTROM, TED Talk, March 2015

Some are trying to build machines whose behavior is indistinguishable from
humans. That was the original group. IHMC is a reaction to that as we're not
into building artificial humans. They are in good supply, already. And, by the
way, the term artificial is a singularly poor name. Perhaps enhanced, augmented
or amplified intelligence would be more apropos. Artificial implies something
fake.

KEN FORD, "Amped up for artificial intelligence", News from Tulane, March 29, 2017

As machine learning is deployed in more areas of life, this issue will become
more important, and will raise serious ethical concerns. The difficulty of
interrogating the latest machine-learning algorithms to find out how they made a
decision could compound this issue.

WILL KNIGHT, "A New Direction for Artificial Intelligence?", MIT Technology Review, March 27, 2017

Every serious technology company now has an Artificial Intelligence team in
place. These companies are investing millions into intelligent systems for
situation assessment, prediction analysis, learning-based recognition systems,
conversational interfaces, and recommendation engines. Companies such as Google,
Facebook, and Amazon aren't just employing AI, but have made it a central part
of their core intellectual property.

KRISTIAN J. HAMMOND, "Please Don't Hire a Chief Artificial Intelligence Officer", Harvard Business Review, March 29, 2017

If computing power maps to intelligence -- a big "if," some have argued -- we've
only so far built technology on par with an insect brain. In a few years, maybe
we'll overtake a mouse brain. Around 2025, some predictions go, we might have a
computer that's analogous to a human brain: a mind cast in silicon. After that,
things could get weird. Because there's no reason to think artificial
intelligence wouldn't surpass human intelligence, and likely very quickly. That
superintelligence could arise within days, learning in ways far beyond that of
humans.

RICK PAULAS, "How humans will lose control of artificial intelligence", The Week Magazine, April 2, 2017

AI is not a passing trend. It's been with us for decades and is here to stay. As
technology and science improve, so will the algorithms behind AI and the
hardware that's running it. However, I still believe it must improve before it
can become an inseparable and integral part of our lives.

JURICA DUJMOVIC, "What's holding back artificial intelligence? Americans don't trust it", Market Watch, March 30, 2017

Artificial intelligence (AI) is currently a technology still percolating in the
depths of IT departments and the fever dreams of industry pundits, but it may
only be a matter of a couple of years that it bursts across many day-to-day
business processes.

JOE MCKENDRICK, "Artificial Intelligence Will Make Its Mark Within Next 3 Years", Forbes, March 30, 201


Marvin Minsky

 

Once the computers got control, we might never get it back. We would survive at
their sufferance. If we're lucky, they might decide to keep us as pets.

Life Magazine (20 November 1970), p. 68

Speed is what distinguishes intelligence. No bird discovers how to fly:
evolution used a trillion bird-years to 'discover' that – where merely hundreds
of person-years sufficed.

"Communication with Alien Intelligence", in Extraterrestrials: Science and Alien
Intelligence (1985) edited by Edward Regis also published in Byte Magazine
(April 1985)

Artificial intelligence is the science of making machines do things that would
require intelligence if done by men.

If you understand something in only one way, then you don't really understand it
at all. The secret of what anything means to us depends on how we've connected
it to all other things we know. Well-connected representations let you turn
ideas around in your mind, to envision things from many perspectives until you
find one that works for you. And that's what we mean by thinking!

You don't understand anything until you learn it more than one way.

No computer has ever been designed that is ever aware of what it's doing; but
most of the time, we aren't either.

Within 10 years computers won't even keep us as pets.  

Daniel Dennett is our best current philosopher. He is the next Bertrand
Russell. Unlike traditional philosophers, Dan is a student of neuroscience,
linguistics, artificial intelligence, computer science, and psychology. He's
redefining and reforming the role of the philosopher.

What is intelligence, anyway It is only a word that people use to name those
unknown processes with which our brains solve problems we call hard. But
whenever you learn a skill yourself, you're less impressed or mystified when
other people do the same. This is why the meaning of 'intelligence' seems so
elusive: It describes not some definite thing but only the momentary horizon of
our ignorance about how minds might work.

The secret of what anything means to us depends on how we've connected it to all
the other things we know. That's why it's almost always wrong to seek the
"real meaning" of anything. A thing with just one meaning has scarcely any
 meaning at all.

I cannot articulate enough to express my dislike to people who think that
understanding spoils your experience... How would they know?  

Anyone could learn Lisp in one day, except that if they already knew Fortran, it would take three days.

Everything, including that which happens in our brains, depends on these and
only on these: A set of fixed, deterministic laws.

We'll show you that you can build a mind from many little parts, each mindless
by itself.

We rarely recognize how wonderful it is that a person can traverse an entire
lifetime without making a single really serious mistake — like putting a fork in
one's eye or using a window instead of a door.

I bet the human brain is a kludge

A computer is like a violin. You can imagine a novice trying first a phonograph
and then a violin. The latter, he says, sounds terrible. That is the argument we
have heard from our humanists and most of our computer scientists. Computer
programs are good, they say, for particular purposes, but they aren’t
flexible. Neither is a violin, or a typewriter, until you learn how to use it.

Minds are simply what brains do.

Once the computers got control, we might never get it back. We would survive at
their sufferance. If we're lucky, they might decide to keep us as pets.

Listening to music engages the previously acquired personal knowledge of the
listener.

It's ridiculous to live 100 years and only be able to remember 30 million
bytes. You know, less than a compact disc. The human condition is really
becoming more obsolete every minute.

The brain happens to be a meat machine.

Logic doesn't apply to the real world.
D. R. Hofstadter and D. C. Dennett (eds.) The Mind's I, 1981.

Common sense is not a simple thing. Instead, it is an immense society of
hard-earned practical ideas - of multitudes of life-learned rules and
exceptions, dispositions and tendencies, balances and checks.

The principal activities of brains are making changes in themselves.

If we understood something just one way, we would not understand it at all.

An ethicist is someone who sees something wrong with whatever you have in mind.

General fiction is pretty much about ways that people get into problems and
screw their lives up. Science fiction is about everything else.

Good theories of the mind must span at least three different scales of time:
slow, for the billions of years in which our brains have survivied; fast, for
the fleeting weeks and months of childhood; and in between, the centuries of
growth of our ideas through history.

One can acquire certainty only by amputating inquiry.

 

In general, we’re least aware of what our minds do best.


Computer languages of the future will be more concerned with goals and less with
procedures specified by the programmer.

Kubrick's vision seemed to be that humans are doomed, whereas Clarke's is that
humans are moving on to a better stage of evolution.

How many processes are going on, to keep that teacup level in your grasp? There
must be a hundred of them.

What magical trick makes us intelligent? The trick is that there is no
trick. The power of intelligence stems from our vast diversity, not from any
single, perfect principle.

Each practitioner thinks there's one magic way to get a machine to be smart, and
so they're all wasting their time in a sense. On the other hand, each of them is
improving some particular method, so maybe someday in the near future, or maybe
it's two generations away, someone else will come around and say, "Let's put all
these together," and then it will be smart.

Will robots inherit the earth? Yes, but they will be our children.

Each part of the mind sees only a little of what happens in some others, and
that little is swiftly refined, reformulated and "represented." We like to
believe that these fragments have meanings in themselves-apart from the great
webs of structure from which they emerge-and indeed this illusion is valuable to
us qua thinkers-but not to us as psychologists-because it leads us to think that
expressible knowledge is the first thing to study.

All intelligent problem solvers are subject to the same ultimate constraints -
limitations on space, time, and materials.

It makes no sense to seek a single best way to represent knowledge-because each
particular form of expression also brings its particular limitations. For
example, logic-based systems are very precise, but they make it hard to do
reasoning with analogies. Similarly, statistical systems are useful for making
predictions, but do not serve well to represent the reasons why those
predictions are sometimes correct.

When David Marr at MIT moved into computer vision, he generated a lot of
excitement, but he hit up against the problem of knowledge representation; he
had no good representations for knowledge in his vision systems.

Societies need rules that make no sense for individuals. For example, it makes
no difference whether a single car drives on the left or on the right. But it
makes all the difference when there are many cars!

How hard is it to build an intelligent machine? I don't think it's so hard, but
that's my opinion, and I've written two books on how I think one should do
it. The basic idea I promote is that you mustn't look for a magic bullet. You
mustn't look for one wonderful way to solve all problems. Instead you want to
look for 20 or 30 ways to solve different kinds of problems. And to build some
kind of higher administrative device that figures out what kind of problem you
have and what method to use.

Imagine what it would be like if TV actually were good. It would be the end of
everything we know.

But the big feature of human-level intelligence is not what it does what it is
works but what it does when it's stuck.

It would be as useless to perceive how things 'actually look' as it would be to
watch the random dots on untuned television screens.

We must see that music theory is not only about music, but about how people
process it. To understand any art, we must look below its surface into the
psychological details of its creation and absorption.

Theorems often tell us complex truths about the simple things, but only rarely
tell us simple truths about the complex ones. To believe otherwise is wishful
thinking or "mathematics envy.

There was a failure to recognize the deep problems in AI; for instance, those
captured in Blocks World. The people building physical robots learned nothing.

But just as astronomy succeeded astrology, following Kepler's discovery of
planetary regularities, the discoveries of these many principles in empirical
explorations of intellectual processes in machines should lead to a science,
eventually.

Experience has shown that science frequently develops most fruitfully once we
learn to examine the things that seem the simplest, instead of those that seem
the most mysterious.

We turn to quantities when we can't compare the qualities of things.

We wanted to solve robot problems and needed some vision, action, reasoning,
planning, and so forth. We even used some structural learning, such as was being
explored by Patrick Winston.

I believed in realism, as summarized by John McCarthy's comment to the effect
that if we worked really hard, we'd have an intelligent system in from four to
four hundred years.

A couple of hundred years from now, maybe [science fiction writers] Isaac Asimov
and Fred Pohl will be considered the important philosophers of the twentieth
century, and the professional philosophers will almost all be forgotten, because
they're just shallow and wrong, and their ideas aren't very powerful.

What would a Martian visitor think to see a human being laugh? It must look
truly horrible: the sight of furious gestures, flailing limbs, and thorax
heaving in frenzied contortions...

To say that the universe exists is silly, because it says that the universe is
one of the things in the universe. So there's something wrong with questions
like, "What caused the Universe to exist?"

You don't understand anything unless you understand there are at least 3 ways.

In science, one learns the most by studying what seems to be the least.

Eventually, robots will make everything.

Our present culture may be largely shaped by this strange idea of isolating
children's thought from adult thought. Perhaps the way our culture educates its
children better explains why most of us come out as dumb as they do, than it
explains how some of us come out as smart as they do.

Everything is similar if you're willing to look far out of focus.

This is a tricky domain because, unlike simple arithmetic, to solve a calculus
problem - and in particular to perform integration - you have to be smart about
which integration technique should be used: integration by partial fractions,
integration by parts, and so on.

By the way, it was his simulations that helped out in Jurassic Park - without
them, there would have been only a few dinosaurs. Based on his techniques,
Industrial Light and Magic could make whole herds of dinosaurs race across the
screen.

There are three basic approaches to AI: Case-based, rule-based, and
connectionist reasoning.

The nature of mind: much of its power seems to stem from just the messy ways its
agents cross-connect. ...it's only what we must expect from evolution's
countless tricks.


Seymour Papert


 

 

The role of the teacher is to create the conditions for invention rather than
provide ready-made knowledge.

You can't teach people everything they need to know. The best you can do is
position them where they can find what they need to know when they need to know
it.

I am convinced that the best learning takes place when the learner takes charge.

Nothing could be more absurd than an experiment in which computers are placed in
a classroom where nothing else is changed.

Every maker of video games knows something that the makers of curriculum don't
seem to understand. You'll never see a video game being advertised as being
easy. Kids who do not like school will tell you it's not because it's too
hard. It's because it's--boring

The scandal of education is that every time you teach something, you deprive a
[student] of the pleasure and benefit of discovery.

One might say the computer is being used to program the child. In my vision, the
child programs the computer, and in doing so, both acquires a sense of mastery
over a piece of the most modern and powerful technology and establishes an
intense contact with some of the deepest ideas from science, from mathematics,
and from the art of intellectual model building.

The goal is to teach in such a way as to produce the most learning from the least teaching.

You can't think seriously about thinking without thinking about thinking about
something.

The word constructionism is a mnemonic for two aspects of the theory of science
education underlying this project. From constructivist theories of psychology we
take a view of learning as a reconstruction rather than as a transmission of
knowledge. Then we extend the idea of manipulative materials to the idea that
learning is most effective when part of an activity the learner experiences as
constructing a meaningful product.

Basic idea is that programming is the most powerful medium of developing the
sophisticated and rigorous thinking needed for mathematics, for grammar, for
physics, for statistics, for all the "hard" subjects.... In short, I believe
more than ever that programming should be a key part of the intellectual
development of people growing up.

Rather than pushing children to think like adults, we might do better to
remember that they are great learners and to try harder to be more like them.

Nothing enrages me more than when people criticize my criticism of school by
telling me that schools are not just places to learn maths and spelling, they
are places where children learn a vaguely defined thing called socialization...I
think schools generally do an effective and terribly damaging job of teaching
children to be infantile, dependent, intellectually dishonest, passive and
disrespectful to their own developmental capacities.

We imagine a school in which students and teachers excitedly and joyfully
stretch themselves to their limits in pursuit of projects built on their
vision...not one that succeeds in making apathetic students satisfying minimal
standards.

Do away with curriculum. Do away with segregation by age. And do away with the
idea that there should be uniformity of all schools and of what people learn.

The reason most kids don't like school is not that the work is too hard, but
that it is utterly boring.

It's not what you know about the computer that's important, but your ability to
do things with it. By studying French in an academic setting, you get to know a
lot about it, but typically, you can't express yourself well or have an
interesting conversation with it.

There's a tendency to make jazzy educational software that's very uniform and
therefore just like school. I'd like to see a company develop software for
rebellious kids who don't want to go to school.

Now more people are doing work that requires individual decision-making and
problem-solving, and we need an educational system that will help develop those
skills.

We often treat children as if they're not very competent to do anything on their
own. So we make them stop learning in a natural way - by exploring. Logo [the
computer programming language ] allows them to find their way around the
computer, as they would find their way around the house, uncontaminated by the
bureaucracies of schools.

I prefer software where kids build something and run into problems they have to
solve.

Parents can learn that parental authority doesn't depend on knowing
everything. The more you pretend, the more risk that it'll be traumatic and
damaging to the kids and their relationship with you when they find out the
truth.

For what is important when we give children a theorem to use is not that they
should memorize it. What matters most is that by growing up with a few very
powerful theorems one comes to appreciate how certain ideas can be used as tools
to think with over a lifetime. One learns to enjoy and to respect the power of
powerful ideas. One learns that the most powerful idea of all is the idea of
powerful ideas.

Our goal in education should be to foster the ability to use the computer in
everything you do, even if you don't have a specific piece of software for the
job.

We should think about what we mean by literacy. If you say, "He's a very
literate person," what you really mean is that he knows a lot, thinks a lot, has
a certain frame of mind that comes through reading and knowing about various
subjects.The major route open to literacy has been through reading and writing
text. But we're seeing new media offer richer ways to explore knowledge and
communicate, through sound and pictures.


Terry Winograd

 

Ultimately, we are seeking a better understanding of what is means to be
human. In this quest, progress is not made by finding the "right" answers, but
by asking meaningful questions.

The main activity of programming is not the origination of new independent
programs, but in the integration, modification, and explanation of existing
ones.

There is a tendency to throw computers at third world problems, which I think is
often a distraction. Putting computers in the schools is great, but it may be
more important to put teachers in the schools.

In the next 50 years, the increasing importance of designing spaces for human
communication and interaction will lead to expansion in those aspects of
computing that are focused on people, rather than machinery.

The techniques of artificial intelligence are to the mind what bureaucracy is to
human social interaction.

A reason to have computers understand natural language is that it's an extremely
effective way of communicating. What I came to realize is that the success of
the communication depends on the real intelligence on the part of the listener,
and that there are many other ways of communicating with a computer that can be
more effective, given that it doesn't have the intelligence.

 


Nos amis de Google

 

Artificial intelligence would be the ultimate version of Google. The ultimate
search engine that would understand everything on the Web. It would understand
exactly what you wanted, and it would give you the right thing. We’re nowhere
near doing that now. However, we can get incrementally closer to that, and that
is basically what we work on.

Larry Page, October 2000

Google will fulfill its mission only when its search engine is AI-complete. You
guys know what that means? That’s artificial intelligence.

Larry Page, May 2002 (The Big Switch, page 212)

The ultimate search engine would understand exactly what you wanted when you
typed in a query, and it would give you the exact right thing back, in computer
science we call that artificial intelligence. That means it would be smart, and
we’re a long way from having smart computers.

Larry Page, November 2002

HAL had a lot of information, could piece it together, could rationalize
it. Hopefully it would never have a bug like HAL did where he killed the
occupants of the spaceship. But that [level of artificial intelligence] is what
we’re striving for, and I think we’ve made it a part of the way there.

- Sergey Brin, November 2002

If you had all the world’s information directly attached to your brain, or an
rtificial brain that was smarter than your brain, you’d be better off.

-Sergey Brin, 2004

“Every time I talk about Google’s future with Larry Page, he argues that it will
become an artificial intelligence.

- Steve Jurvetson, January 2005

We are not scanning all those books to be read by people, we are scanning them
to be read by an AI.

- Unidentified Google engineer, October 2005

One of our big goals in search is to make search that really understands
exactly what you want, understands everything in the world. As computer
scientists, we call that artificial intelligence.

-Larry Page, October 2005

The ultimate search engine would understand everything in the world. It would
understand everything that you asked it and give you back the exact right thing
instantly. You could ask ‘what should I ask Larry?’ and it would tell you.

Larry Page, May 2006

People always make the assumption that we’re done with search. That’s very far
from the case. We’re probably only 5% of the way there. We want to create the
ultimate search engine that can understand anything. Some people could call that
artificial intelligence.

May 2006

Google wants to be the best in search. To reach that goal Google wants to have
the world’s top AI research laboratory.

Google internal company paper, October 2006

One of my favourite things is artificial intelligence, but it has gotten a very
bad rap, but my prediction is that when AI happens it’s going to be a lot of
computation and not so much clever algorithms but just a lot of computation. My
theory is that if you look at your programming, your DNA, it’s about 600
megabytes compressed, so it’s smaller than any modern operating system, smaller
than Linux or Windows or anything like that, your whole operating system, that
includes booting up your brain. So your program algorithms probably aren’t that
complicated, it’s probably more about the overall computation. We have some
people at Google who are trying to build artificial intelligence and to do it on
a large scale to make search better. Very few [other] people are working on
this, and I don’t think it’s as far off as people think.

Larry Page, February 2007

We want Google to be the third half of your brain.
(Brin)

Your mind is tremendously efficient at weighing an enormous amount of information. We want to make smarter search engines that do a lot of the work for us. The smarter we can make the search engine, the better. Where will it lead? Who knows? But it’s credible to imagine a leap as great as that from hunting through library stacks to a Google session, when we leap from today’s search engines to having the entirety of the world’s information as just one of our thoughts.
Brin, (September, 2004)